Plants – FuEDEI https://fuedei.org/en Foundation for the study of invasive species Tue, 08 Jan 2019 14:31:10 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.11 Solanum elaeagnifolium https://fuedei.org/en/solanum-elaeagnifolium/ Mon, 29 Jan 2018 15:17:54 +0000 https://fuedei.org/?p=2346 The silverleaf nightshade, Solanum elaeagnifolium is a perennial herb, covered with dense silver-whitish stellate trichomes, which give them its characteristic aspect. It belongs to a elaeagnifolium group of spp distributed in both South America and North America.

Widely distributed in Argentina together with two other species that belong to the elaeagnifolium group. It occupies elevated fields and disturbed areas, such as roadsides or construction sites. It is an important weed in cultivated fields and in grazing fields because it can be toxic to animals.

The silverleaf nightshade has been dispersed worldwide, mainly as a seed contaminant.

Two biological control agents, Leptinotarsa texana y L. defecta, from North America were released in South Africa.

In 2018 FuEDEI is starting a survey to record and study the associated insects in Argentina with the aim to obtain new biocontrolers.

(Photos: Dick Coulbert and Flora Mendocina)

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The Argentine fleabane https://fuedei.org/en/rama-negra/ Fri, 21 Apr 2017 18:16:47 +0000 https://fuedei.org/?p=1961 The management of “Argentine fleabane”, Conyza bonariensis, is a main problem in fallows and summer crops. This species is widely distributed and it appears both in abandoned fields and in cultivated areas in Argentina. Its high production of seeds, ability to self-pollinate and easy adaptation to a wide range of environmental conditions give it great reproductive success and facilitate its invasive capacity. It is controlled by herbicides, mainly glyphosate, nevertheless lately this method has become of low effectivity and resistant biotypes have being detected worldwide. Besides, it was observed that C. bonariensis populations that are resistance to glyphosate have a high attack of stem miner insects.

Insects associated with C. bonariensis and the effect of their damage on the development and reproductive capacity of the plant will be studied. In addition, the effect of the damage on the sensitivity of plants to glyphosate will be evaluated.

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Cat’s claw https://fuedei.org/en/una-de-gato/ Fri, 08 Apr 2016 11:12:05 +0000 https://fuedei.org/?p=1699 FuEDEI and ARC from South Africa signed a cooperation agreement and benefits sharing to search and study natural enemies associated with Dolichandra (syn. Macfadyena) unguis-cati (L.) A.H. Gentry (Bignoniaceae) to evaluate their potential as biological control agents. The seed-feeding weevil Apteromecus notatus (Hustache) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has been found in relatively large numbers throughout the areas surveyed in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. By limiting seed production, thus reducing seed bank replenishment, A. notatus might make a valuable contribution to the control of the weed.

Staff in charge:

Fernando
Mc Kay
Cooperator:
Costas Zachariades, ARC-Plant Protection Research, Cedara Weeds Unit, Hilton, South Africa.
CurcuMacfedyenaParaná5
A. notatus larva
Macfaa 002
A. notatus larva and pupa
BP 011
A. notatus adult
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Mesquite-Prosopis spp. https://fuedei.org/en/algarrobos-prosopis-spp/ Thu, 07 Apr 2016 13:01:55 +0000 https://fuedei.org/?p=1585  

Invasive Prosopis species (Leguminosae) (mesquite) pose a significant threat to biodiversity, pasture production and water resources in South Africa. Aspects of the biology and the host range of the seed-feeding weevil, Coelocephalapion gandolfoi Kissinger (Coleoptera: Brentidae: Apioninae), were studied in Argentina and South Africa to evaluate its potential as a biocontrol agent. Application for release C. gandolfoi in South Africa was submitted in 2012. For release of C. gandolfoi to be granted, the Biological Control Agents-Review Committee of South Africa requested conducting additional host specificity with Xerocladia viridiramis, an indigenous South African and Namibian species.

 

Staff in charge:

Fernando
Mc Kay
Cooperator:
Costas Zachariades, ARC-Plant Protection Research, Cedara Weeds Unit, Hilton, South Africa.
Prosopis alba
Prosopis alba
Coelocephalapion gandolfoi pupa
C. gandolfoi pupa
C. gandolfoi adult
C. gandolfoi adult
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Waterhyacinth https://fuedei.org/en/camalote/ Thu, 31 Dec 2015 16:26:14 +0000 https://fuedei.org/fuedei2016/?p=947 Waterhyacinth (WH), Eichhornia crassipes, is a floating macrophyte, perennial and one of the worst aquatic weed worldwide because its aggressive growing and dispersion ability. WH was brought to the whole world from South America as ornamental and thus has become an invasive species. In 1968 started the investigations in our laboratory to identify and study the insects associated with WHto initiate a biological control program in Florida, USA. 

As result of these research 6 biocontrol agents were developed and are use at present: Orthogalumna terebrantis(Acari: Galumnidae), Neochetina eichorniae (Col., Curculionidae), Neochetina bruchi (Col., Curculionidae),  Niphograpta albiguttalis (Lep., Crambidae), Xubida infusella(Lep., Crambidae) y Megamelus scutellaris(Hemip., Delphacidae).

Other insects are being studied as potential biocontrol agents: Taosa longulaTaosa sp. (Hemiptera) y Thrypticus truncatus (Diptera).

Research on waterhyacinth ecology and associated insects in wetlands of Río de la Plata.

In order to broaden waterhyacinth management strategies, plant ecology and its associated herbivores are studied. Special attention is paid to the leafhopper Taosa longula.


Staff in charge:
Alejandro Sosa
Guillermo Cabrera Walsh 
M. Cristina Hernández
otrito-okMarina Oleiro
Cooperators:
-Phil Tipping, ARS-IPRL, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, EE.UU.
-Paul Pratt, ARS-EIWRU, Albany, California, EE.UU.
-Martin P. Hill and J. Coetzee, Rhodes Univ., South Africa.
-Angela Bownes and Costas Zachariades, PPRI, South Africa.
-Ana Marino, Univ. y Museo de La Plata,  Buenos Aires, Argentina
-Celeste Franceschini, Solange Martinez, Centro Ecol. Aplicada del Litoral, CECOAL , Corrientes, Arg.
-Raghu Sathyamurthy and Andy Sheppard, CSIRO, Australia
Alejandro and Mariel sampling at San Vicente, Buenos Aires
Cristina surveying for WH insects at Herradura Formosa
Taosa longula host specificity tests
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Brazilian peppertree https://fuedei.org/en/chichita/ Thu, 31 Dec 2015 16:14:18 +0000 https://fuedei.org/fuedei2016/?p=941

Phytophagous insects associated with Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) in Argentina

Brazilian peppertree (BP), Schinus terebinthifolius, native to South America, is invasive weed in the USA, Australia and South Africa. In June 2004 an agreement for cooperation on Brazilian peppertree research was reached between FuEDEI and the Invasive Plant Research Laboratory (USDA-ARS, Fort Lauderdale, Fl., USA).

The objective was to search for natural enemies of BP and evaluate their potential as biocontrol agents for this invasive exotic weed. Surveys in northeastern Argentina revealed the presence of 40 phytophagous insects associated with BP, providing valuable biological diversity and species distribution information for Argentina. Unfortunately none have been considered for released due to concerns about the safety of these species which appeared during testing. The search and testing of new prospective agents continues to be our top priorities for the Brazilian pepper biological control project.


Staff in charge:

Lic. Fernando
Mc Kay
Cooperator:
Greg Wheeler, ARS Invasive Plant Research Lab, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, EE.UU.
Schinus terebinthifolius_01
Large walk-in cage experiment
well developed mines (ready to be excised)
Leurocephala schinusae blotch-leaf mines
C. infuscata gall
Crasimorpha infuscata stem gall
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Brazilian waterweed https://fuedei.org/en/elodea/ Thu, 31 Dec 2015 16:05:25 +0000 https://fuedei.org/fuedei2016/?p=936

Brazilian waterweed, Egeria densa (Hydrocharitaceae), is native from South America; it thrives in clear and lentic watercourses of the Paraná basin and Buenos Aires lagoons, as well as endorheic basins of Córdoba province, Argentina.  Introduced as ornamental for aquariums, it became an aggressive invader in South Africa, Australia, China, USA, Chile, New Zealand, Japan, etc. In South America is a weed in hydroelectric dams, irrigation canals and drainage canals because they affect the flow of water, and operation of turbines and locks. Brazilian waterweed reproduces vegetatively very fast, generating a large amount of biomass that affects other plant species and causing a cascading effect on the ecosystem. They also affect the recreational, industrial, and urban use of water.

Only one specific species of herbivorous insect is known to this plant, Hydrellia egeriae (Diptera: Ephydridae), distributed in Argentina. Studies in our laboratory showed that the larvae are leaf miners; they eat the mesophylum and affect the photosynthetic capacity of the plant. So far some others species found in E. densa where unspecific. Continue surveying the entomofauna and pathogens associated with this plant deserves further attention.


Staff in charge:
Guillermo Cabrera Walsh
Cooperator:
Ray Carruthers, ARS-EIWRU, Albany, California, EE.UU.
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Water primrose https://fuedei.org/en/primula-de-agua/ Thu, 31 Dec 2015 15:54:32 +0000 https://fuedei.org/fuedei2016/?p=930

Water primroses, Ludwigia grandiflora, L.g. ssp hexapetala, and L. peploides, are an invasive group of aquatic plant species, forming extensive monospecific mats that impair water flow and shoreline activity, diminishing the plants biodiversity in de ecosystem. They reproduce by seeds and vegetatively, and have the potential to dominate the vegetation if introduced to lakes, river, ponds, ditches or streams.Ludwigia y EN

They are South American in origin and have spread naturally and as ornamental in USA and many countries in Europe. We found a variety of insect guilds feeding on L. g. subsp. hexapetala, including 6 species with stem-borer larvae, 1 species with fruit-feeding larvae, 4 species with defoliating larvae, 2 species with defoliating larvae on young leaves and axil meristems, 1species of cell content feeder, and 3 species of sap feeders. The promising candidate under study is a thrips, Liothrips ludwigi.


Staff in charge:
M. Cristina Hernández
cabrera ok
Guillermo Cabrera Walsh
ana-faltlhauser-ok
Ana Faltlhauser
Cooperators:
Brenda Grewell and Paul Pratt, ARS-EIWRU, Albany, California, EE.UU.
L. g. subsp. hexapetala  
L. grandiflora 
L peploides subsp. montevidensis
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Water lettuce https://fuedei.org/en/lechuga-de-agua/ Thu, 31 Dec 2015 15:40:15 +0000 https://fuedei.org/fuedei2016/?p=924

Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae) is an aquatic floating macrophyte, supposed original from South America and India subcontinent. Spread all over the world as ornamental, is now an invasive species in many countries in Africa, Asia, Australia and North America. It impedes the access and use of the water, the recreation and it is an aggressive weed in natural ecosystems. In Argentina is a weed in lagoons, urban ponds, moorings, etc.

The aquatic weevil  Neohydronomus affinis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and the planthopper  Lepidelphax pistiae (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) are two effective natural enemies of P. stratiotes studied at FuEDEI.

 


Staff in charge:
Guillermo Cabrera Walsh
Cooperators:
Phil Tipping, ARS-IPRL, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, EE.UU.
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Alligator weed https://fuedei.org/en/lagunilla/ Thu, 31 Dec 2015 15:30:02 +0000 https://fuedei.org/fuedei2016/?p=919

 

Ploidy level effect of alligator weed on the phytophagous insects and phytopathogens.

The alligator weed, Alternanthtera philoxeroides, is an allopolyploid from South America and invasive in several regions in the world. This weed invades agricultural and natural ecosystems such as rice, soybeans, sunflower and corn.

The goal of this project is to investigate the ploidy level effect on its genetic variability and on its natural enemies, phytophagous insects and phytopathogens. This project allows expanding the theoretical framework of the allopolyploids weeds from the study of a particular case, their interactions with insects and phytopathogenic specialists and their potential for invasion. It is also expected to expand management strategies through biological control.

 


Staff in charge:
Alejandro Sosa
Cooperators:
Eduardo Greizestein, Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Guadalupe Traversa, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Raghu Sathyamurthy y Andy Sheppard, CSIRO, Australia.
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